Megaliths talk also in the Arctic

The entire World Order stored in a few stony monuments telling about half years and mending time at Ramadan, Easter as going beneath and maybe midsummer was what they needed. Maybe they got the ideas from Egypt and Mesopotamia since we see some remains

Time square, Alta, Finnmark, megalith, manipulated stone, Leirfall, Trondheim, Nämforssen, Medelpad, Sommen, Karelen, Horus, Yearman, djed-pillar, doublefalcon, grouse, lying grouse, lying hen, tripod, dolmen, one-legged stone, God's table, Kola Peninsula, pair stones, doomring, Isis Horus child

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The time square at field Ole Pedersen at Alta Finnmark N Norway approximately 4000 BC, also at Amtmannes occurs a cross with two sides associated to rein deer and thus expresses the year's four seasons

The rhombic shape could be compared to the pattern on the golden plate from Stonehenge that could be used for determining the year. At Alta there is also carvings of a square parted in seasons. I have noticed stones cut to a square in Medelpad and at Kola. At Aamey, Rogaland there is a square made of ships that associate to some presentation from Sumer. Naturally people independent of profession and life tied themselves to Time like we do.

This essay compresses and integrates what we know about myths and rock art to better understand megaliths and manipulated stones. In Wooden Scandinavia we have much megalith culture left untouched, while stones are used for other things on the continent and lowlands of agriculture. We will never know how many supporting smaller stones have been taken away through the ages. In some places at the Kola Peninsula we find some untouched stone yards filled with monuments: We have early copperplates showing that in 17th century there were plenty of stones on ancient graveyards. Today only a minor part is left.

We get also to know that the cultures of Egypt, Elam and Sumer together with stony West Europe influenced as far as to Kola. The stone ideas came from SW Europe but other ideas came from Egypt that in 4th millennium was heavily influenced by Elam and Sumer.

Like in many places of Lapland today the rein dear was The Leader. In Sweden and Finland it was the Elk and it is still the leader for devoted hunting organisations much of the year. In the Anglo-Saxon world the Stag was the leader. The rock-carvings at Bergsbukten show the importance of the rein deer those days. We know that at least in parts of Lapland they used the very big asterism Heaven's Reindeer/ Elk that extends from back in Orion and horn crown in Cassiopeja. It was useful for 6000 years or the whole period of civilisation we write about. Later we see the procession of pairs with long elk-staff 2 x or 2 x 2 showing the leaders of the four seasons. In Skaane we get the proof around 2000 BC with clear carvings and they set big bronze axes on the staffs

At Bergsbukten we also see that they were well aware of their space-time. The carvings illustrate the year in Finnmark 6000 years ago. In the middle of the carvings we see that they used the 7-suite of moon-guys. Then we know that at least at that time the moon calendar was used at Alta. From the caves we see that the method as such could be several times older. We do not know yet if they used stony monuments to complete the program in the carvings

Today it is maybe difficult to understand that they introduced agriculture as far as to Lapland. The average temperature was several degrees higher than today and maybe the seed was of other origin than our "lowland specie". They have found seed pollen almost to the bottom of the Gulf of Bothnia in 3rd millennium. Agriculture brought the myths and it also brought the megalith culture that was manifestos of the agricultural year. Once they saw the use even hunters and fishermen found it useful to follow the ritual calendar.

From there three very wise Maidens come
out of the well, under the Tree of Life;
one is called Origin, another Making,
- they carved on a sheath - Future the third
They set down laws, they chose lives
for the children of men, the fates of men
Voluspa verse 20 made understandable

The rock-carvings at Leirfall/ Lerfald at the level of Trondheim are the most important carvings telling about the arrival of Three maiden of Childbirth and growth in nature also mentioned in the medieval Edda. Probably the origin is in Elam (Persia) known for female goddesses in early times. It was a method of using three midwives. Better up the Three Maiden are naturally known also in ancient Europe but stayed as helpers in Lapland until our times. We see them on some early leader drums.


Egyptian ship sailing at a rock at the level of Trondheim, the Egyptian reed boat 4th millennium and the high-sea-ship with typical oar in stem also on a rock

These ships add more evidence to early influence from south

Here, we have moved to Nämforssen, Aangermanland but in Sweden also in level with Trondheim and here is the elk King

One orients how one stands against the starry sky and seeks the four quarters. We have a lot of rocks with "footprints" showing that they stood in them to get hold of time. Like many stony alignments they often oriented toward SW but east and south also occur. Standing in the footprints at a certain time the asterisms come on parade and changes with the year. Then they could create memory rules for the time. Especially here on Dal we have a "language" with footprints, but they occur all over Scandinavia and as we see in the early Leirfall carvings and similar symbols as in the picture.

Using "memory stones" for important events in the year made it easier to remember and teach to the younger generation. Most important were the half-year events with Ramadan in autumn. Beginning of season was important especially in agriculture with the New Moon/ Inanna "go-underground"-ritual, which should be connected to the tripod dolmen. However the bear dance seems to have been important for nature people since the very beginning. In Egypt they celebrated the Osiris-ritual in beginning of February and that ended in rising the djed-pillar. We see Osiris = the corpse in our rock-carvings too.

That could be the slanting stone as well as the standing stone Frey-stone, Little Stone, Maiden Stone in Scandinavia connected to beginning of May. In medieval times here on Dal they set up the rowan the day they let the cattle out. I am not so sure that they celebrated Midsummer in every place. It had no connection to fertility

In this essay I use typical pictures from Medelpad middle Lapland level of Trondheim, Sommen East Gautland and Karelia from Viborg in south to Kola Peninsula with half of the fields. Naturally I should mention my own Dal/ Dalslands west of Lake Venern. One can perhaps see 20 different types, but probably they partly are variants so that one gets a core of half a dozen and a few variants. We do not find all the variants in all localities and we should add some occasional row and square which evidently indicates arranged ritual place

One could say the megaliths mostly are situated in Wooden Fenno-Scandinavia nowadays. However we do not know much about the landscape these days. It was a few degrees warmer and the cultivators made trials as far as they could and that mean as far as we know the coastal Lapland. Mainstream archaeology has not shown interest. Some monuments are seen as "scribble" in the landscape and not all archaeologists want to document them.

In Sweden it is up to amateurs like Dottemar and Westling to document, but in Russian Karelia the archaeologists have done great job. Sees the URL below. I present here a short review of ideas I see in the forgotten stones of the North. It has become almost tradition that I present unusual solutions about stony ideas. In this case I have gathered examples that show we have to wonder about the influence from Egypt - Elam - Sumer those days. It helps to make a plausible explanation about the practical use of the megaliths.

In Scandinavia, a few has occurred clearly sculptured stones with male head apart from those with three or four faces for "the ages" = the seasons. …. Sees Trinity. That is the visible mould of baetyl that was used everywhere in the Old World in order to represent idols in temple or a local idol outdoors. Among Hittitians it developed to a statue of the local hero and in time that created the place names telling that the people live in the name of a certain idol.

Before we go further tune ourselves to look on the priest Jacob Fellman who could be said was the church's ethnologist in the middle of 19th century. But his book was not published until 1906.

In woodlands they worshipped the gods not alone on mountains, rocks and land, permanent stone blocks, loose stones set up for the purpose. The Lapps made idols as well of wood as stone, but they were in fact stone worshippers. Sometimes the deity was constituted as a big dark stone as base and a small white lying on it.

At Langojavre in Inari have I seen two stones, as jointly constituted of a god. …

It is maybe not so odd that he the priest did not compare what he saw with certain texts in the Bible. The Bible's ritual landscapes in the Levant were much the same as in the Arctic when bible was typed. Also in Scandinavia it was much alike far forward to after Christianity took over. In Lapland it was preserved almost to our time… sees Exodus, foot stool, … there are no reason that we in 21st century should use disparaging and lowering sentences about the far ancient people in the Arctic

Many years ago I sat down and tried to by mind craft see how our ancestors chose the living place. It is naturally much better if we find a lead from Baffin Island Canafda were the oldies have saved the folk memory. The points are of course given by nature but stiöl it is good to get the connection tro the real c0ntext. We understand that even our earliest ancestors were rational and did not use magic for these things:

"Searching for 'inigijuminaqtun' pronounced... inigi -yumin - aqtun requires looking for places having some or all of the following:


Yearman = Horus from Kola occurs in many places and the slanting 4 metres high is from Sommen … click on picture for king size

Probably, we can put slanted as well as vertical pillars into the group. I think it is difficult to rise a raw stone to stable position. Slanting it with support would make it stable. At Sommen there are 100 monuments so it is easy to make statistics and comparison. Eleven are more or less standing stones and I suggest they mark family sites … sees Cultural stones

Horus was surely the Yearman and that meant responsible for the outcome from the fields. Originally the symbol was a palm leaf seen in the stem of year boats and later it became the renpet-symbol. Even in Scandinavia they counted "harvests".

Ritual life always look forwards so the season (vegetative). There are the merged asterisms looking like Maiden on Horse, but it is on the Lion. The animal stands with forelegs in an empty both symbolising it should be filled. The hind legs stand in an empty basket. To that we should add the djed-pillar belonging to the Osisris ritual and that really marks the season. There is a weak tradition that end of the season they throw stones on a heap maybe symbolising the harvested corn.

The Egyptian and even Sumerian tradition tells that Toth, the moon is scribe. Egypt is big and there are various traditions due to specialised temples. Still we see the Falcon Horus on the stela or a pillar shoving beginning of year that for a time was at the asterism Cancer in the symbolism

In Danish tradition there is Little Hans May 6th and we have the place name Little Stone. I suggest that it mean a pillar/stone for that date. In Sweden we have the name Freystone and Frö = Frey = Germ was the little one and why not Maiden Stone since we have both male and female tradition.

We could call most megaliths memory stones used as general means of keeping track of time and the temple was a special feature of it in society. Philosophically Time is maybe the first abstract concept for mankind. It has to be stored in folk memory and to be understandable for everyone. The easiest way is to picture time as moving and we in the boat destined for future. Then we can leave the rest to theoretical physics and philosophers.

A last ancient description finds we in Bishop's Tale from Iceland where the first Christian Bishop shows no understanding and contempt for the old culture. Actually, he carries out an act "Making a cross over the stone" and it cracked up to the legend. He acted in the same way as the monk Wolfred who demolished a hov in Birka that was probably three wooden pillars. The people stoned him to dead since he did not honour the local law and World Order. Those days religious law and secular law were not in phase.

The Alderman at the Thing = court showed a special stone and called it Yearman or why not Alderman and tried to explain what it meant. In the antiquity, one counted actually harvests while the Bishop intended on church years counting souls perhaps. Understanding foreign symbolism and metaphors asks for the attitude of good will. The Bishop had the power and the king behind him and he needed not to question his mission. The Bishop destroyed the Yearman and thus the local calendar an introduced the calendar of the church. Maybe he used some magic since it was the tool of the church when they turned peoples' mind 180 degrees

In the Negew dessert they used often the black stone is symbol for the highest force. Sometimes there is an altar in front. The stones are probably of the same age as we speak about in Lapland. The Sumerians/Elamites dug for turquoise in Sinai and in the area there are Sin-shrines. That is to the moon god we know from text. Maybe SIN AI should be read Sin-mountain. In 4th millennium the Egyptian symbolism developed and was ready for systematic archaeology that starts with the dynasties around 3000 BC

Egypt around 3250 BC with strong influence from Mesopotamia shows what became Egypt's official symbolism

In the middle, two different birds and the on the three divided circle is "time bird" for the moon calendar while the other is for the sun calendar. In the subtropics it is the appropriate to divide in three and the year and fertility begins with flood/ inundation followed by the season with agriculture and lastly the hated summer heat. The third bird sit on the palace portal and it is maybe Horus.

From the same time there are finds of the Doublefalcon all the way down the Nile into southern Levant. It indicates that at least certain cultural aspects were the same and maybe also the leadership. Still we see the divided calendar and half year division everywhere. In most places the symbolism shows only the summer 7 - 8 moons. That indicates they were interested only in agriculture… sees Macehead for early symbolism


Left comb from Finnmark, right Naqada 4000 - 3600 BC Egypt

To me the comb from Finnmark looks very much import. I have no information about the material and other things. In Sweden we have the comb from Gullrum, Gotland they think is imported from Elam 4th millennium. Pairship we see a lot of in the rock-carvings and enough to know that it symbolises half years and sometime quarters. In Lapland and the northern areas they used sculptured Elk head on two staffs while they put big axes on the staff in south Scandinavia.

… one of the birds on the Egyptian carvings make me associate to grouse when I see some boulders. Maybe they were used as "stand in" and I take a cut from Baffin Island.

"The standing figures / dummy tend to be in a long line up on a ridge, facing the lake. The seated figure/ goose tends to be close to the various ponds where the geese nest and raise their young. Inuit hunters have told me that geese are very sensitive to any change from how they remember the landscape. Those who hunted long ago in this area knew this. They built 'replicas' of themselves both standing about and seated near the ponds. Over time these intruders were perceived as part of the landscape. This brilliant deception worked. The geese returned. Some of the inuksuk like figures moved in the twilight and silently captured and killed the unsuspecting birds, season after season. I had seen an example of this hunting technique on a much smaller scale at a very old site in the Dorset area several years ago"

Here on Dal the duck hunters use pipe and dummies still today

Of total 700 pictures around a percent of them looks like a grouse with deliberately sculptured head. Some stones are maybe chosen to look like a grouse while some other stones associate to other animals

When one sees a movie from Kola sees one now and then a flock of grouse passing by. It is just a natural choice to use the lying grouse in symbolism as local symbol. The Icelandic early law called Gragas = greylag and that is an example how they used known concepts like elsewhere. Perhaps Gragas aims on the law thing in the autumn? Early scripts are often like rebus.

In Stockholm lives 80% of the country's bigwigs and for them is the natural to go to Norrland on grouse hunting. They get some reams grouses for the freezer box with modern automatic guns. Little they care about what nature tolerates while old time customs just took the surplus and not more otherwise willed be no returning population in the long run.

After what I understand it is still today that we harvest nature when every kind is at its best for food. The Animal Around with many animals as asterisms just reminds us about the original program on the starry sky. Cultivation seems to be the last added part around 6000 years ago. In the river cultures it was easier to see the natural rhythm of year and make program and rituals. The manifestos in stone became folk memory as well as claim for early farmers. I doubt that there have ever been pure grovers as normal case. Everyone needed animals as complement. Still they needed agreement with the pure hunters

Here, one must repudiate that all from popular writers to the Director-General, the National Heritage Board uses the concept lying hen because they think the manipulated stone/ megalith looks like a hen on egg. Firstly according to the archaeologists there were no hens in the contemporary environment. Secondly exist 12 - 20 different shapes of manipulated stone stones that suggests that there were several meanings. Tripod/ dolmen is a nearly an exception. But as group very visible and aesthetic addressing for archaeologists loving big and spectacular monuments. The definitions were set in 19th century and earlier when the documentation of what there is was poor. Sadly academic science hardly ever erase old wrong conclusions.

Another fact is that there is no standard for how many feet a stone have. We have to use to use 1 - 5- foot as the normal. In the Sommen area with 100 stones the one-legged stone is the common with 72% and only 18% tripod type. It seems that the relation is much the same in Karelia. This is a real problem for reliability of archaeology.

The motif for the composition we do not know and can only analysis by logic and compare with the contemporary needs and customs. But probably they wanted to tell something at the same time, as you have to manipulate a stone to make it special and cultural. Another thing the easiest way is then to use a lever and minimise the need of power … however when we see the size of some stones and how they have manipulated them we understand that they were not afraid of any hard work to make an interesting composition

In Karelia there are so many interesting compositions that using the silly "lying hen" would cover the entire agenda and create preconceived ideas. We need open eyes and the humble mind that we are the pupils and understand only a fraction of the language of stones. Wrong expressions make us underestimate and depreciate the genius of our ancestors … we can do without hubris of modern man

In my essays I have taken up this in many places since the places I have studied are underestimated as sources to Stone Age ideas. The mighty Sommen-area is analysed at "Giant table" Cultural stones and Medelpad i s shown in Dottemars paw lands and the types are mentioned in this essay. Here I integrate three great areas with the core in rock-carvings of the North.

Some decades ago it was easy to make a timeline of megaliths. Now with increased knowledge it is not so simple. A big dolmen made around 4000 BC could contend secondary inhumation from 2000 BC. From the Alps we know that in some places they cleaned the shrine for bones so new generations could take the place. We have simply too little knowledge 

There are so many parameters so it is hard to remember and consider them all. Today we would think about Norrland that they could not grow seed at that time. But the temperatures during 3 - 4th millennium were some degrees higher and they have found grain pollen in the coastal areas of Norrland during the third millennium. The ordinary tripod and the pillar is clear inspiration from beginning of farming and "missionaries" brought megaliths to far North is the near conclusion.

I prefer to tie my interpreting to practical needs and contemporary use. Those making trials in agriculture did not think about life and dead in the way theology and theoretical archaeologists think. The ancient system of religion build on the circulation of water in biosphere and popularly we call it resurrection … we need only to read Sumerian and Egyptian stories about this and afterlife. Ancient people felt they were in the flow = in ban with ongoing life. From that point we can star speculations about spiritual life eventually…. The ancient subtropical year begins with water flows that bring the fertility.

Yet another fact is that modern DNA mapping shows that the people in Norrland and the people in Skaane have together unique mtDNA (mothers) that only exists within those areas in Europe. This could mean that culture have moved wit migrants to Norrland at some time after the ice melted at least at the coastal land. That fact causes a lot of rethinking of course.

There is no need to speculate in shamanism as soon we see rock-carvings and pictures with odd figures. It would be hard to prove that shamans ever existed. The concept shaman looks more like a political, theological label to separate south and north. No good science. Do you know what an abstracted idol looks like? Into a stony monument you can read whatever you want, but rock-carvings are defined by the lines and what the on-looking man sees … and that is up to his imagination. The less he knows the wilder goes the solution.

People in Lapland want to be called Sames today, but were they Sames those days or Ex-Skaanians? On the other hand, I withdraw from speaking about shamans and shaman belt in Northern hemisphere … I try see behind the schemes as for instance in Amtmannes:

Invitation to shamanistic and academic speculation and wild ideas

This is only a little cut from Amtmannes and the big rock-carving and they date it to 2700 -- 1700 BC. What do gods or abstract ideas look like? I don't know, but I think they tried to picture periods like half moons during the season in this picture. Maybe they got impressions from south and wanted to make their own moon calendar.

It is almost a law that in periods when mankind is not sure of the "time" or new ideas the pictures are non-figurative. Pablo Picasso was the latest in trying catching a new time … that of the machinery deforming mankind. Some of the figures maybe made in that way. Other in the Sumerian way in merging different images to something new. We also use strange words for novelties. The Norwegians are still "throwing around" their radio waves in the word "kringkasting" … picture that!!!

The two way vertical lines are surely Watergate and the horizontal Water-snake that orient us in the night sky. The big "fallen man" is of the same family as for instance the one at the Norrkauping calendar. And why not the big crocodile eating the moons in Egypt that was replaced with a young one at Ramadan. I also compare it with the early printed almanac with small pictures showing the labour of the month. For me the rock-carvings of Amtmannes are just a Hyperborean version of the Egyptian night sky.


Tripod from Vottovaara, Kem near the White Sea… click on picture that also is an environmental picture. Right beautiful stone from Sommen

To become blind for what occurs in your neighbourhood feeds the nerds staying only in Midgaard. Our ancestors used stones as carrier of symbol language that with the stone's eternity should preserve society its order. We know best south-west Europe's powerful God's Table but only the length of the feet separates it from North European tripods. Denmark has mostly dolmen with long legs but some are made with short legs like in Sweden. Northwards stand they almost always on bedrock.

The only difference in south is that certain of the big dolmens so big room that it could be used as shrine. However in many places it is just the symbolic stairway to underworld that we see in Sumerian symbolism. In some places the passage temple replaces the dolmen but is still stairway to Underworld. It is natural that West Europeans made claims on the land and the megalith buildings and monuments were the visible documents. On good arable land the monuments were more numerous than to day. In the woodland it seem that just some areas/ tribes catch the idea.

My Russian friend Vyacheslav Mizin participated in a team that examined 12 areas from Viborg to Kola Peninsula. He sent me two CD with 537 photos and an hour's DVD. My friend Göran Dottemar from Medelpad sent a CD with 443 photos with environment any very many clear ancient monuments. Moreover, I have a dozen pictures of selected from Sommen's 100 monument.

All the material about stones and other things make it possible to see some patterns in the stones however there was no standard for monuments. E can never know for sure but if we follow reality we can explain at least something. All people were rural those days and much of their life was similar in many parts of the world. It is a good thing to have examples from several areas and thus we can make it more common for a huge area. The Kola area is exceptional but we can continue to Kem, Valamo, Viborg, Medelpad, Aangermanland and surely many more areas with more than just one megalith monument in a place. This is important especially for the one-legged stone that is not really recognised by many Swedish archaeologists. They see only big monument … I call it megalomania.

In English the world dolmen is established. In SW Europe some time they use the word table or god's table when it looks like a table. It fits well to the myth about new moon goddess Inanna sitting at her table drinking beer in the face of Leo. Deities ask for king size like the big step down from top of the ziggurat on which the top was like a table. In Scandinavia we have so many rock-carvings showing fragments of the Inanna myth that there is not point in disputing she came to Europe too.

Skabersjö-viet shows that many dolmens probably stood in a WEOH/ VI that is a place guarded by the V-shaped wings of head size stones for instance. In the middle stands the dolmen that catches the morning sun at vernal equinox and symbolic decline into Underworld. Similar can one discern at Blacke-bloc Vellinge Stockholm where stone strings still is left supporting the tripod

There could be many explanations why the high dolmen lost its long feet. In Wooden Scandinavia they often stand on the bedrock and they solved the problem with shrine or temple by other means. I suppose it is easier to make monuments at the firm bedrock than on the soil. It is normal that things get simplified with time and in Wooden North there is always the problem too few arms when things should be done. Still in many places it was no hindrance.


A one-legged from Kola and another from Sommen

The example from Kola is selected in order to illustrate that it seems to have been like a sport to defy the natural laws and balance problems in many monuments. It could be vertical pillar, slanting pillar like the long 4 meters at Sommen, boulder over an edge, boulder on a slanting rock, V-shaped standing on the top and more. The people's struggle against the nature gave self-confidence and showed visitors what force they are against.

Many archaeologists and amateurs see only the tripod and call it lying hen and that means the concept covers the entire agenda. Certain archaeologists think the one-legged is just junk stones and they hardly document it as antiquity in spite of the rule from Antiquity Department. They are like some of our police that see only what they want to see. And as usual rules are one thing and practice another when the work force has its own mind. Our ancestors "were wise" when they understood that they had to make mega-big monuments. Otherwise the future child would not recognise them -;)

My small statistic of monument around Sommen shows that only 18 of 100 are tripods, while 72 of 100 are one-legged and along with 11 pillar-like constitutes the normal in the area. There exists additional 4 variants that are exceptions, but can is counted as one-legged. Just as onlooker I think the relations are much the same at Kola.

My conclusion is that many people get their impressions just from their surrounding and ideas without asking for wider view. Instead of investigating and to do genuine statistic one can build conclusions on. One must point out that One-legged megalith is the common and to be noticed by archaeology as important heritage.

On Kola the everyday struggle for food included to handle big pieces. Whale hunting more than 5000 years ago

Here on Dal we have a pair of type low tripod of which the to unite was detected recently in connection with that they projected for a wind park: It is new for me since they always say we have no megaliths at Dal. They also found one one-legged monument, but the archaeologists say that they do not register such things in West Gautland? I suppose there could be a lot of unknown monuments in the wilderness part of our landscape. We have a rich wedge tomb era so why not also earlier megaliths

We have many places in Europe with concentration of big megaliths. In north we have the one-legged, tripod, pillar and other shapes concentrated in some areas as it looks with my knowledge today. Kola, Kem, Valamo, Medelpad, Angermanland, and Sommen just to mention what I know today. We could ask was it a mania that made people to work with the stones so they made more than they needed just for the fun of it. At the same time the self-esteem grow when they see what they could manage. It was good reputation to have series of megaliths showing the feasts of the year. The organised society showed its face

Here, we may build further on the idea that different types of monument were memory stones. It is precisely as it is inn our society. The difference is that the topic was top keep the local World Order in memory. We know it for certain from the big cultures in south, while we in Scandinavia may be content with fragmentary evidences. The time is an abstract phenomenon and it is not entirely simple to explain what Time is in our days.

It was a "brilliant snap" when mankind got the genius idea to say "the time goes" and next how they could use the seemingly going stars to manage time. It is sufficient it behave before our eyes. But for the sky watch we need the firm stones to count how far time has gone. On that road they constructed the squared model as well as the circular model and also the row that need marking points when the time has gone a turn.

In our days people often fasten at the physical functions and want to know details about time and then the detail shadows the idea. Not many could follow the night sky and get the time from it. Our ancestors followed it all the time and were in it. The church ties however the ritual year to the vernal equinox in the same way as they did when they "went in weoh/ vi" after first full moon after the vernal equinox for 5 - 6000 years ago. They celebrated the Easter ritual we can learn from the texts about Inanna stepping down … a pity that theology set the label PAGAN in too many places. They should never use it since history is the continuous movement without beginning and without end.

With Egypt's visible symbolism can we then see three important monuments. One for each half-year and one for the season. The half-year's is easily seen as monument in pairs. From medieval times we have some rules like for the season the staff and the heap. Maybe they set a stone for the cattle season in spring like the late medieval Rovan when they let the animals out. In Stone Age I suppose they were outdoors all the year.

In Abbots Bromley Staffordshire they still celebrate the Horn Dance first Monday after September 4th. The roots are surely as old as organised Autumn Game hunting for the winter when the crowned animals are fat. Then they maybe in some places set some stone for the High Game. At Alta they have carved halibut on the rocks and it shows that there was a time for halibut. Now we have come so far that we can do possible interpretations of other monument that can have connections with the time order

There is the medieval calendar stick from Skaane and mostly Church saints and days are marked as symbols. But there are also the ancient marks for following the moon in August - September for Ramadan and aligning of moon and sun year … and the symbols are really ancient.


Pairstones Medelpad right stands on an assumed wedge tomb and Karelia at left

The pairhood can be related to cultivation quarters or half-year. Around 2300 BC and ahead sees we that the quarters were represented by the ritual axe that was half of the wanax = double axe of the Minoan world. When they got suitable bronze axes it was possible to made four axes and set on a staff, however they were only interested in the summer half with two axes. One sample shows that one axe represents the empty boat and the other is marked with the crossed footprint for harvest. In north they made instead elk-head staffs for the quarters/ half-years. The same idea in different package.


Pairs of ritual bronze axes in Skaane …. Elk-head staffs in pair at Alta and also in middle Swedish Lapland at Nämforssen are pairs of men with staffs

Here on Dal we have the rich pairhood with wedge tombs in pair and other symbolism of pairhood. Brother-estate lived until our time. The concept stands for companionship, agreement, brotherhood or whatever with two parts and it is almost philosophical in a practical way.

In Dottemars photos from Medelpad there is half a dozen pair stones. At Kola it is sometimes difficult to see if stones are in pair because some are on field that are filled with stones. Sames in the Arctic have still the habit to gather at certain places in winter. Some are monuments and others are free boulders. But in many places we can see the stones are together and sometimes with smaller stones between or near them


Split red painted stone Aange, Medelpad

We have to buy that the paint is original and red was used for ritual purposes from the very beginning of ritual. Blood/ red stands for life and meant sacrificing


Split stone from Kola and another from Aange

If we see the stone represent half year we could understand that the gap is between half years. That is the 11 days difference when we align sun year and 12 moons plus 11 days to be the sun year of 365 days. We fin much of the symbolism in rock-carvings, southern sources and better-known megalith monuments. In the Sumerian society they had the "seven sleepers week" for a time end of July - August when everyone was free. One could say Time stood still.

On the split stones, they have often filled with one or more small stone. Also in mountain and bedrock crevices are sometimes filled with small stones. According to late folklore they sacrificed in them and they are often situated at places were the nomadic rein people gathered and maybe for season ritual. They also gathered for the winter in certain protected areas.

It is possible that I have such a split stone in my paw woods. At least there is some case with a loose chip. The type is easy to judge as not important. It is easier when it occurs near some "the giant's table" like Jakobsberg, Näshult SDML. Safe distinguishing feature is if there are small stones placed in the crevice.

Perhaps the original idea was to fill the gap when time was not running. It means those 11 days when they aligned moon year to get even out with the sun year. This "rest" we see in many rock carvings. In the original myth is Watergate/ Milky Way the Death River Styx where it runs down between Sagittarius and Capricorn. The place is also the year's ends Ramadan and the autumn butchering. We can place it at the Haugsbyn Rock 06 where we see the fallen hero/ Horus, man as a heap of bones in the end. The motif we find in several rock-carvings as for instance above Amtmanness.

A part of these monument lies on ancient gathering places or winter nest places. The monuments are very visible in the wasteland. In South Scandinavia only few are left. We have not much folklore left about sacrifice and small head-size stones have always been a bargain for builders. In the church, one came easy away with sacrificing waters however in some churches we find idols in stone or wood.

Sometimes it doubtless also was practical that when once one still willed fry and to eat a reindeer can man equally gladly sacrifice some leg to Raadaren/ the High in nature = He who decides. Priests usually think that ancient people were more spiritual than we are and many archaeologists have root in the Faculty of Theology. I think people are as they are most. They follow old manners without much thinking.

Some pairs of boulders are deliberately made like a notch that maybe was used as sight stone when observing night sky or rising sun/ moon/ star. Then you need only a heel stone to get the astrolabe in nature. Such things should be studied at the place.


The Yearman still going strong near Linkauping. Right from ancient monastery island finding Valamo, Ladoga that has an entire collection of megaliths

Ancient people used sometimes colour codes for different things. Here it seems to be for seasons. The structure is the same as much bigger monuments in three or four layers. In Karelia it appears often as tripod/ one-legged and other monuments with a small stone upon. Sometimes the bedrock is on part and they are high and recognised as sait/ seidas in our time. That means in theological language Laplandish pagan monument. Still the word seems to have the root in Germanic site = place of living. In this case the white stone occurs as "joint piece"


A row with 7 stones could mean 7 summer moons at Kola. At right traditional shape of an outdoor temple

Here at East Dal we have 7 stones in the doomring = local court. Often they occur in pairs like our wedge tombs. We can only guess about a divided village between professions. In some places they used the one ring to keep the offering fire and the other for the court, but other variant are possible. Those they had to keep fire safe as for instance during cremation. In Karelia occur rows, squares and stone rings too. I have seen a photo with 13 stones in the ring and that is the moons used for a year.

Mora Stone is mentioned by Olaus Magnus 16th century (Chapter 31):

… on the plain there is a big flat stone the people always have called Mora Stone. It stands in a ring of 12 a little smaller stones. The big stone stand on smaller wedge shaped stones

This seems to be old tradition about Mora Stenar being gathering place for the counties in Dalarna. Then it should be called Thing Stone for the bigger unit landscape. On Dal we have signs that county/ parish existed in 3rd millennium. In north it was the same but with different dimensions and practice, I suppose

According to later tradition Mora Stone was used as crowning stone/ Lia Fail for the king. However Peder Swart tells in 16th century that the peasants smashed the stones. They did not like that someone should stand above them. Now the smashed stones with script are saved in a special little house at the place. There is a great difference between democracy of peasants and that of sovereign kings ...see also footstool Let us borrow a shirt piece from Aberdeen just to remember that standing stones were used to mark place of local order as well as the thing = court

In the Aberdeen Chartulary of 1349 is a notice of a court held at the Standing Stones in the Don Valley, "apud stantes lapides de Rane en le Garuiach," when William de St. Michael was summoned to answer for his forcible retention of ecclesiastic property. And again, in the Chartulary of Moray a regality court was held by Alexander Stewart, Lord of Radenoch and son of Robert II. at the Standing Stones of Raitts, stating "apud le standard stanes de la Rath de Kinguey."

Only when we understand the ancestors manners and customs comes we them near. In the Old World's societies without documents and archives "the stone language" connected to the stone's to eternity and existed where during the year's time. Actually, exist the official symbolism still and the manifestation left in our public premises and in the churches. The difference is the execution that was intensified when it became allowable to use visible idols … Sees for Exodus, and other essays.

We also have to look at the old error in language when we say sunrise and fall, but not so serious though. But if we call the crossed circle for sun-circle it associates to wrong things. There is no cross on the sun and we mean instead Time and its division in four parts of the sun orbit.

Then often follows that all stone circles are sun-circles and that our ancestors practised sun cult. Empty head and not a thought behind. Generally stone circles are divided from some early into 56 forthnights or 27 naksatras = the moons homes to the smaller symbolising moons of the year or half-year. Then they talk about sun cult, however none would worship and look at the pure sun, while a few looks too much at the moon. So when they followed the Moon they followed Time is the real idea that bring food on table when connected to nature

At Leirfald shows how Three Maidens came in suite with the moon men. Here is the Inanna myth in version from Lapland.

On this picture gives New Moon Maid rain and grain through the bowl hole to the land that often was symbolised with a snake for the plant season i.e., Hydra in night sky. However the asterism is also symbolised as the goddess Ereshkigal in Underworld. There are many variants and songs about this. This moon suite of 7 - 8 of summer we find from Lapland to the Alps so to speak.

On rock-carvings at Bergsbukten, Alta there are 7 lying old men at start of the season and completed with a boy. There is also motifs showing that the boy (Horus) take over next season. Due to the gradual uplift of land it is possible to date the carving fields, since they always made the carvings at seas level. Therefore, we know that Alta's ritual carvings could be dated and from fragments we can se they followed the practical astronomy in south.

At Skärvaangen we find "mother and boy" and one can associate to Isis. Check the hands that grab between 2 and 3

The big difficulty is perhaps to realise that we in culture flow from Egypt and Mesopotamia already during the fourth millennium. Tröndelag and the Norwegian west coast give us those fragments we need with carvings of early Egyptian ships and the Sumerian ritual calendar motifs.


The exists many compositions that can be interpreted as mother and son = Isis and Horus child

Right, the big stone lies near waters. The associates to Rock 06, Högsbyn where we see "the little one sail under ground i.e. the sown seed on the flow." We know to mother and daughter in the mythology as Demeter and Kore. The archaeologists have generally ignored that Time was the real ruler and God from the very beginning. They do not realise the calendar motif when the text say that Horus child avenges his father Gone Horus and Time and take over. In fact we have the motif in Voluspa the Edda when Vile avenges his father at Ragnarauk.

In my early essays, I have tried to separate Egyptian and Elamite-Sumerian influence. But when it comes to the fourth millennium is the unnecessary since Elam-Sumer had a considerable presence in Nil Valley until the dynasties created the Two Lands. Perhaps the foreigners were the ruling class and we see at the Gebel al Arak knife that they were probably defied in the Nile Delta. They have also left cultural remains in the Sinai dessert when searching for copper and turquoise. I think we will learn more in future.

The work with this essay has shown me that there is much to detect in the lands. I have surfed in order to see what exists outside Medelpad, Sommen and Karelen and that is initially a lot at Internet. But there are many sites in books and who could reach all those. It is really a shame that we have the tradition that people only look for tripods. They do not see other types neither they recognise smaller stones that have been fencing or supporting the monument

Jouni Tervalampi's site is an example with mostly the dolmen type and it is difficult to get an overlook. There are seemingly many URLs but there are many more books referred.

I would like presentation where the 7 types I show in Medelpad, Sommen and Karelia as a guideline. There could be more types as I have left out what maybe is a footstool. It is engraved footprint 3 - 6 cm deep and not the traditional rock-carvings. We find them in Karelia, Medelpad, Denmark, Ireland for instance and it could have been the marked rostrum for the "speaker". Speaker was a tittle in Denmark around 500 AD it was the local democracy before the kings. Best known footstools are Kingston and Lia Fail

This short review shows that the megaliths surely to a high degree was folk memory for time keeping and ritual even in High North. We can connect to rest of Europe and understand the people in the arctic in a better way than disparaging archaeology and mythology of the theological faculty. I can only regret that the mainstream archaeology do not recognise what I have described above.

As always nowadays I try to integrate all aspects we know about the far past. Stones, rock-carvings, and myths all give us fragments of the history of Stone Age. It is much more reliable than sitting in chamber producing theories and lowering some evidence to be too low culture to recognise. I think I have all reason and right to hackle archaeology when they do not really love our ancestors.

Since major part of the stones I comment are situated in an area with a language not too many understand I have to use an ironical pin-pointer. Many people think "shaman, sorcery and magic" and we have to ask did these theoretical methods rise the boulders:

So, two short memories: In 17th century they were hunting the witches. In Gautland it happened that the simple man parish clerk told he could do magic. The court was curious and wanted him to show since it could be good to know, I Suppose. The good man asked for the church key, David's Psalter and a few other things. He tried and tried and nothing happened this time. And so it is with sorcery IT DOES NOT WORK and corn does not grow in the field using magic.

Around 13th AD the local bishop born in this landscape died. It was use that for beatification to Saint they needed two miracles. The legend was created that he twice waked a dead to life and gave the sacraments so the corpse could go back to the grave as a true Christian.

In the early church making miracles was one of the means to get proselytes without using the sword. Naturally there were many proselytes wanting to show how they could defend the church by hunting the heretics. It was all depending on the local nobility and priesthood and not the same everywhere. At the same time rose literature and some writers tried to write down old sagas in the true way, while other tried to make the ancestors look foolish.

Let me say I use real-time and reality as reference and then magic does not work!. I hope my examples above shows that our ancestors and possible origin in Skaane show same kind of World order as in south. For me it is enough to threat them on equal basis.

Some URLs with pictures and not much in English but they are the immediate references

Dottemar's Patter-woods album

Sommen and others commented

Karelian links in English. Load could be slow due to heavy photo load.

Karelian root with many links. Load in 3 - 4 min. due to heavy photo load. At "Megalith" are pictures from different areas. Mostly in Russian so far

Jouni Tervalampi have bunches of literature/ links in Swedish though

Pictures of two of Dal's unknown monuments

Superb site about Korean and East Asian megaliths of the same types as in Europe and Karelia. There is also are view of global megaliths. Very many good drawings and photos and highly recommendable just to see that the world is bigger than Europe. Push the arrow at bottom for next type!

 Ikpik Journal:

Ethnogeography in the Piling Lake area of Central Baffin Island

Ritual calendar of euro-asian nomads

Nyssanbay M. Bekbassar